The Second Beast: Revelation 13

Revelation 13:11-12 “Then I saw another beast coming up out of
the earth, and he had two horns like a lamb and spoke like a
dragon.”
 
America has often been identified as the second beast in

Revelation 13:11-12, but America does not meet the requirements
of the second beast, mainly because it is not an empire and it
doesn't have a universal church like the Roman Catholic Church
which forces everyone to worship Catholicism. To unlock the true
identity of the second beast in Revelation we first have to identify
the first beast, the sea beast, in the Revelation 13.

 
Most SDA theologians tell us that the sea beast is the Roman
Catholic Church, but we have to look closely at what the Bible
actually tells us, in other books of the bible, especially Daniel and
the Revelation.
 
 Revelation 13:1 “Then I stood on the sand of the sea. And I saw a
beast rising up out of the sea, having seven heads and ten horns,
and on his horns ten crowns, and on his heads a blasphemous
name.”
 
The sea beast in Revelation 13 represents the fourth dreadful
terrible beast in the book of Daniel. In Daniel chapter 7 Daniel
tells us exactly what a beast represents in Bible prophecy.
 
Daniel 7:17 "Those great beasts which are four are four kings, representing their kingdoms, which arise out of the earth."
 
Therefore, a beast = a king representing its kingdom.
 
Daniel 7:23 "Thus he said; "The fourth beast shall be a fourth kingdom ...."
 
Daniel tells us quite plainly that a beast is a king representing their kingdom and just to confirm that a beast is a kingdom Daniel tells us twice. As a result of these verses the city of Rome nor the Roman Catholic Church can be the beast.
 
 
The city of Rome identified
 
Revelation 17: 1-6 “Then one of the seven angels who
had the seven bowls came and talked with me, saying to
me, “Come, I will show you the judgment of the great
harlot who sits on many waters, with whom the kings of
the earth committed fornication, and the inhabitants of
the earth were made drunk with the wine of her
fornication.” So he carried me away in the Spirit into
the wilderness. And I saw a woman sitting on a scarlet
beast which was full of names of blasphemy, having
seven heads and ten horns. The woman was arrayed in
purple and scarlet, and adorned with gold and precious
stones and pearls, having in her hand a golden cup full
of abominations and the filthiness of her fornication.
And on her forehead a name was written: MYSTERY,
BABYLON THE GREAT, THE MOTHER OF HARLOTS
AND OF THE ABOMINATIONS OF THE EARTH. I saw
the woman, drunk with the blood of the saints and with
the blood of the martyrs of Jesus. And when I saw her,
I marveled with great amazement.”

 
Babylon the Great, the mother of all harlots, rides upon the beast with the seven heads and ten horns.

Revelation 17:18 "And the woman whom you saw is that great city which reigns over the kings of the earth.

The woman represents the city of Rome which sits upon the beast controlling what it does. The sea beast represents the whole kingdom or empire of the beast.
 
Daniel’s four beasts were all world empires and they grew stronger and larger which each succeeding empire. The first world empire was the Egyptian empire, and then followed the Assyrian Empire, the Babylonian empire, the Persian Empire, the Macedonian Empire and finally the Roman Empire.
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
The sea beast in Revelation represents the whole kingdom of the Roman Empire. The second beast, with two horns like a Lamb, must be a world empire as well and it should be stronger and larger than the Roman Empire.  Another thing to notice is that the empires gradually move west with each succeeding empire. Therefore the second beast kingdom should be west of Rome.
 
Revelation 13:12 “And he exercises all the authority of the first beast in his presence, and causes the earth and those who dwell in it to worship the first beast, whose deadly wound was healed.”
 
Notice here that the second beast exercises all the authority of the first beast, "in his presence." This means that the second beast exercises the same power and authority in church matters as does the first beast and it exercises this power in the presence of the sea beast. In other words the second beast rises in the presence of the Roman Empire before it fell.
 
Who is going to worship the beast if it doesn’t have any power or authority?
 
SDA theology identifies the first beast as the Roman Catholic Church, but many of the first beasts attributes can only be applied to the Roman Empire. The majority of the verses in Daniel and the Revelation apply purely to the Roman Empire and its Caesars not the Roman Catholic Church. The Roman Empire officially came to it end c.1453 when the Byzantine capital Constantinople fell to the Turkish army.

 
Is America the second beast?
 
Early on in Adventist theology America was identified as the second beast in the Revelation. But does America really fit the requirements of the second earth beast?
 
Firstly, the second beast must be a world empire and it must be similar to and larger than the Roman Empire. America does not have an empire it is just one large nation. The Bible definition of a beast kingdom tells us that a beast kingdom contains multiple nations controlled by one dominant nation or two in the case of Mede/Persia.
 
 
The Earth and the Sea
 
“The leopard beast came up “out of the sea,” but the two-horned beast arises “out of the earth.” The sea is said to represent “peoples, and multitudes, and nations, and tongues.” Rev. 17:15. The earth, by contrast, must refer to a “territory previously unoccupied.” “It could not, then arise among the crowded and struggling nationalities of the old world—that turbulent sea” of various peoples and tongues. It must be found in the western continent.
{General Conference of SDA. (1919). 1919 Bible Conference Collection. (M. C. Wilcox, A. O. Tait, C. P. Bollman, D. E. Robinson, L. L. Caviness, A. L. Baker, … T. E. Bowen, Eds.) (p. 932). General Conference of SDA.}
 
Quote from above, the second beast rises in a, “territory previously unoccupied.”
 
The native Indian population was present from day one when the first fleet of pilgrims arrived on the east coast of the North American continent. There was well over 100 different tribes of indigenous Indians on the North American continent alone.1
 
“When the English arrived in Virginia in 1607 and created the first permanent English settlement in North America at Jamestown, they did not encounter an uninhabited land. An estimated 50,000 Virginia Indians had called what is now the Commonwealth of Virginia home for more than 12,000 years. The tribes the English encountered first, and most often, belonged to the powerful Powhatan Chiefdom. The land occupied by the Powhatan Indians encompassed all of Tidewater Virginia, from the Potomac River in the north to south of the James River, and parts of the Eastern Shore. This area, which they called Tsenacommacah, was about 100 miles long from north to south and about 100 miles wide from southeast to northwest. Before the arrival of foreigners, and their unknown diseases, the Powhatan Indians were estimated to have numbered 25,000.”
{Historic Jamestowne, The Powhatan Indian World, http://www.nps.gov, 2014}
 
To say that the earth represents the American continent which was a place where there was hardly any people is just wrong and it is not support by historical or archaeological records. Just one tribe contained an approximate 50,000 natives and there were about 100 tribes in North America alone.1 That’s approximately 500,000 natives and about the same population as the aboriginal Australians when the English first arrived in Australia. Image what the consequences would be if anyone stated that Australia was second beast because it was founded around 1798 and it is located where there were hardly any people.
 
The earth in Revelation prophecy must represent the opposite of what the sea represents. The sea in the Old Testament represented people in general, but in Revelation prophecy the sea specifically represents the people, tribes, nations and tongues who worship God. If the sea represents people who worship God, then the earth must represent the opposite, those who worship the beast. In the Revelation the earth is presented as being inhabited by people, once again the opposite of SDA teaching.
 
Revelation 12:12 “Woe to the inhabitants of the earth and the sea!  For the devil has come down to you, having great wrath, because he knows that he has a short time.”
 
Revelation 12:13 “Now when the dragon saw that he had been cast to earth, he persecuted the woman who gave birth to the male child.”
 
Revelation 12:16 “But the earth helped the woman, and the earth opened its mouth and swallowed up the flood which the dragon had spewed out of his mouth.”
 
Revelation 13:12 “And he exercises all the authority of the first beast in his presence, and causes the earth and those who dwell in it to worship the first beast, whose deadly wound was healed.”
 
Revelation 16:2 “And the first went, and poured out his bowl upon the earth; and there fell foul and evil sores upon the men who had the mark of the beast, and upon them who worshiped his image.”
 
Revelation 17:8 “The inhabitants of the earth whose names have not been written in the book of life from the creation of the world will be astonished when they see the beast,”
  
The “earth” in Revelation prophecy represents the kingdom of the beast and the people who worship the beast and its image. Satan gave his power and authority to the beast, so in affect these people are all worshiping Satan.
 
 
Two Horns like a Lamb

““It [the second beast] had two horns like a lamb.” Horns primarily  represent power. The nation under consideration must present two underlying principles which “are the secret of its power and prosperity,” and which might be represented by the two horns of the beast. It needs only to be stated that civil and religious liberty, or democracy and Protestantism are those principles. These are the foundation stones of the constitution of the United States.”
{General Conference of SDA. (1919). 1919 Bible Conference Collection. (M. C. Wilcox, A. O. Tait, C. P. Bollman, D. E. Robinson, L. L. Caviness, A. L. Baker, … T. E. Bowen, Eds.) (pp. 932–933). General Conference of SDA.}
 
This quote from the General Conference of Seventh Day Adventists tells us that a horn primarily represents power and the two horns of the second beast represent power and prosperity, but we are not given any information about where this information is contained in the Bible. Mainly because there is no precedence in the Bible which tells us that the horn is any of these things. In Daniel, as shown before, we are told many times that the horn represents a prominent king usually the first king of a kingdom which becomes an empire.
 
“J. N. Andrews compared the two lamblike horns with the little horn of Daniel 7. He noted that the little horn represented the union of the oppressive papal church with the various oppressive European state governments. He argued that by contrast the two lamblike horns represented the nonoppressive Protestant denominations in America and the nonoppressive Republican government of the United States.”
{Maxwell, C. M. (1992). The Mark of the Beast. In F. B. Holbrook (Ed.), Symposium on Revelation: Exegetical and General Studies, Book 2 (Vol. 7, p. 102). Silver Spring, MD: Biblical Research Institute of the General Conference of Seventh-day Adventists.}
 
Andrews has a similar interpretation identifying the two horns as the Protestant churches and the Governement of America, but again Andrews just declares this and offers no scriptual authority to confirm this type of identification. This is because there is no Bible verse which declares a "horn" is anything other than a king.
 
“Daniel is intrinsically linked with Revelation. Not only is Revelation a continuation of Daniel’s prophecies, but the wording it uses is familiar because it first appeared in the book of Daniel. The book of Daniel, then, is a major key to understanding Revelation.”
{What We Believe, Prophecies of Revelation for Teens, by Seth J Pierce, chapter 9, page 53}
 
The main problem with SDA theology on this subject is that SDA theologians in the past haven't used these basic principles to unlock the true identity of the second beast and the image of the beast or even what a "horn" really represents.


What is a Horn in Bible Prophecy?
 
Daniel 7:24 “The ten horns are ten kings who shall arise from this kingdom. And another shall rise after them; he shall be different from the first ones, and shall subdue three kings.”
 
Ten Horns = ten kings
 
Daniel 8:21 “And the male goat is the kingdom of Greece. The large horn that is between its eyes is the first king.”

Beast = Kingdom    Horn = King
 
Daniel 8:20 “The ram which you saw, having the two horns—they are the kings of Media and Persia.”
 
Two Horns = Two Kings and their Kingdoms
 

The sea beast in Revelation has ten horns. Therefore, using Daniel's principles, the ten horns are literally ten kings from ten seperate kingdoms. The second beast has two horns like a lamb, therefore they represent two savior kings from two kingdoms within one empire.

 
The Universal Church
 
The Roman Catholic Church professed to be the true church and preach the true word of God. The second beast is the image of Roman Empire so it should also form a universal Christian church, which professes to be the true church and spread the true word of God to the people.
 
America once again is not an empire, nor has it produced a universal church which forces everyone of its subjects to worship the Roman religion, Catholicism. This is why SDA theolgians and preachers all think this is going to happen in the future.

 
Characteristics of the Second Beast
 
1. The second beast should an empire which starts out small like Rome and grows to dominate the world.
2. The second beast empire is like the Roman Empire but larger.
3. The second beast empire has two savior kings and possibly two kingdoms.
4. The second beast empire develops a universal Christian church just like the Roman Catholic Church.
5. The second beast church profess to be the true church and preach the true word of God.
6. The second beast church then make its subjects worship Catholicism.
7. The second beast church enforce Sunday laws.
8. The second beast church persecute God’s people who keep the Sabbath.
 

Is there is an empire which has already fulfilled all of these characteristics of the second beast?
 
 
The British Empire and the Church of England
 
“At its height, it was the largest empire in history and, for over a century, was the foremost global power. By 1922 the British Empire held sway over about 458 million people, one-fifth of the world's population at the time. The empire covered more  than 33,700,000 km2 (13,012,000 sq mi), almost a quarter of the Earth's total land area.”
{Ferguson 2004 p.15, Elkins 2005 p.5}
 
  
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
The British Empire
 
The British Empire started out as a small pagan kingdom which then converted to Christianity, just like Rome. The British Empire grew to become the largest and perhaps the greatest empire the world has ever known, just like Rome. The British Empire was forming as the Roman Empire was declining. The Byzantine Empire lasted until 1453 AD and this is an important date in English history as well as it marks the end of the 100 year war between England and France.2 The British Empire copied nearly everything the Roman Empire did even creating their own universal Christian church. The Church of England forced all of its subjects to worship the beast, the Rome Empire, and its religion, Catholicism.
  
Previously, I have pointed out that a "horn" in Bible prophecy represents a king. I believe Alfred the Great could be the first lamb-like horn of the second beast. He definitely had Christ-like qualities and he was the first king of the fledgling English nation. Alfred was an Anglo Saxon king of west Wessex who successfully defended Wessex against Viking invasions in the ninth century. Alfred’s strategies and infrastructure helped to unite the people and he was instrumental in the rise of the then struggling new nation.3
 
Other prominent English kings include; William the Conqueror, the first Norman King of England, and a direct ancestor of our current Queen. Henry the Eighth, of course, who instigated the Church of England’s break from Catholicism and named himself head of the true church. Richard I or Richard the Lionheart, as he was better known, was the inspirational leader of the third crusade. There was also James I, the first Scottish king of England, who brought us the King James Bible.
 
The second beast has two horns which represent two kings and their kingdoms in Bible prophecy. The first is likely to be Alfred the Great who united England or Henry the VIII who instigated the break from Catholicism. I prefer Henry as his reign began shortly after the demise of the Byzantine Empire. The second is likely to be James I from Scotland. These two kings being from the one empire, the British Empire.

 
A Persecuting State and Religious Power
 
“The church in England recognized Henry VIII as supreme head of the Church of England on 11 February 1531.”
{Separation from Papal Authority, History of the Church of England, Wikipedia, 2014}
 
In the Bible we are told that only one person has the right to be named Head of the true church.
 
Colossians 1:15-18 “He is the image of the invisible God, the firstborn over all creation. For by Him all things were created that are in heaven and that are on earth, visible and invisible, whether thrones or dominions or principalities or powers. All things were created through Him and for Him. And He is before all things, and in Him all things consist. And He is the head of the body, the church, who is the beginning, the firstborn from the dead, that in all things He may have the preeminence.”
 
“The title was created for King Henry VIII, who was responsible for the English Catholic church breaking away from the authority of the Roman Catholic Church after the Pope excommunicated Henry in 1533 over his divorce from Catherine of Aragon. By 1536, Henry had broken with Rome, seized the church's assets in England and declared the Church of England as the established church with himself as its head. The Act of Supremacy of 1534 confirmed the King's status as having supremacy over the church and required the nobility to swear an oath recognising Henry's supremacy.”
{Supreme head of the Church of England, Wikipedia, 2014}
 
“By the 1543 Act for the Advancement of True Religion, Henry restricted Bible reading to men and women of noble birth. He expressed his fears to Parliament in 1545 that "the Word of God, is disputed, rhymed, sung and jangled in every ale-house and tavern, contrary to the true meaning and doctrine of the same."”
{Reformation reversed, English Reformation, Wikipedia 2014}
 
Revelation 13:15 “He was granted power to give breath to the image of the beast, that the image of the beast should both speak and cause as many as would not worship the image of the beast to be killed.”
 
“The total number of executions during Henry’s 38-year reign numbered in the tens of thousands. Protestants were punished for violating the Six Articles, while papists were punished for denying the royal supremacy of the king over the church.”
{ibid}


On succeeding to the throne, Mary rescinded the Edwardian Prayer Book, restored the links to Rome, replaced Protestant bishops with Catholic ones and prohibited clerical marriage. Transubstantiation was upheld and images and altars returned. This trend accelerated following the defeat of Wyat's rebellion and Mary's marriage to Philip II of Spain in July 1554.
{Tremors - Reformation & Counter-reformation England, Mary I (1553 – 1558), http://www.open.edu, 2014}
 
“Nigel Heard summarises the persecution thus: “It is now estimated that the 274 religious executions carried out during the last three years of Mary's reign exceeded the number recorded in any Catholic country on the continent in the same period.””
{Reunion with Rome, History of the Church of England, Wikipedia, 2014}
 
“The Act of Supremacy of 1558 re-established the Church of England's independence from Rome, with Parliament conferring on Elizabeth the title Supreme Governor of the Church of England, ….”
{Elizabethan Religious Settlement, Wikipedia, 2014}
 
The Queen of England is still recognized today as the head of the Church of England.
 
“The world's primary feudal landowner is Queen Elizabeth II. She is Queen of 32 countries, head of a Commonwealth of 54 countries in which a quarter of the world's population lives, and legal owner of about 6.6 billion acres of land, one-sixth of the earth's land surface.”
{Who owns the world, www.newstatesman.com/global-issues, 2015}
 
Are the Queen and all of her subjects legally subject to the Pope and Rome?
 
“King John broke the terms of this charter by signing the Magna Carta on June 15, 1215. Remember; the penalty for breaking the 1213 agreement was the loss of the Crown (right to the kingdom) to the Pope and his Roman Church. It says so quite plainly. To formally and lawfully take the Crown from the royal monarchs of England by an act of declaration, on August 24, 1215, Pope Innocent III annulled the Magna Carta; later in the year, he placed an Interdict (prohibition) on the entire British empire. From that time until today, the English monarchy and the entire British Crown belonged to the Pope.”
{Khondakar Golam Mowla‬, The Judgment Against Imperialism, Fascism and Racism Against Caliphate and Islam volume 2
(AuthorHouse, 2008): 69.}

 



References
1. List of Native American Indian Tribes and Languages, http://www.native-languages.org/languages.htm#alpha, 2015
2. Hundred Years' War, Wikipedia, 2015.
3. History of the Monarchy, http://www.royal.gov.uk/HistoryoftheMonarchy, 2015.
 
 
the sea beast in Revelation 13
The Seven Headed Sea Beast in Revelation 13, Brent Dawes, 2015
babylon the great and the scarlet beast
Babylon the Great sitting on the Scarlet Beast, Brent Dawes, 2015.
seven consecutive world empires
Six of the seven consecutive world empires; Egypt, Assyria, Babylon, Persia, Greece, and Rome. Brent Dawes, 2015.
british empire map
A Map of the British Empire at its greatest extent including all of its Territories and Protectorates, Brent Dawes, 2015.