Bible Chronology: from Creation and beyond

Adam to the Exodus

Adam plus 130 years to the Birth of Seth = 130 years
Plus 105 years to the birth of Enosh = 235 years
Plus 90 years to the birth of Cainan = 325 years
Plus 70 years to the birth of Mahalalel = 395 years
Plus 65 years to the birth of Jared = 460 years
Plus 162 years to the birth of Enoch = 622 years
Plus 65 years to the birth of Methuselah = 687 years
Plus 187 years to the birth of Lamech = 874 years
Plus 182 years to the birth of Noah = 1056 years
Plus 500 years to the birth of Shem = 1556 years
Plus 100 years to the birth of Arphaxad = 1656 years
Plus 35 years to the birth of Salah = 1691 years
Plus 30 years to the birth of Eber = 1721 years
Plus 34 years to the birth of Peleg = 1755 years
Plus 30 years to the birth of Reu = 1785 years
Plus 32 years to the birth of Serug = 1817 years
Plus 30 years to the birth of Nahor = 1847 years
Plus 29 years to the birth of Terah = 1876 years
Plus 70 years to the birth of Abraham = 1946 years
Plus 100 years to the birth of Isaac = 2046 years
Plus 60 years to the birth of Jacob = 2106 years

There was 2106 years from the Creation Week to the birth of Jacob (Israel). Jacob and his family went to Egypt to live with Joseph during the seven year famine. Jacob was 130 years of age at this time, (Genesis 47:9).

2106 + 130 = 2236 years

From the time that the children of Israel came to Egypt, until the Exodus from Egypt there were 430 years, (Exodus 12:40).

2236 + 430 = 2666 years

Therefore from Creation to the Exodus is exactly 2666 years.

Revelation 13:18 “Here is wisdom, Let him who has understanding calculate the number of the beast for it is the number of a man. His number is 666.”

The Exodus year was the year of the 10 plagues of Egypt. The last plague was the Destroyer who killed all of the first born Egyptians and their cattle. The Israelites were sealed by placing the sacrificial blood of lambs on their doorposts. The destroyer passed over any house that was sealed and did not enter their home. This is the Passover celebrated by Jews today.

Revelation 9:1-14 “....the angel of the bottomless pit is named in Hebrew abbadon (Destruction), but in Greek he has the name Apollyon (Destroyer).”

Psalm 17:4-5 “....I have kept away from the paths of the destroyer. Uphold my steps in your paths that my footsteps may not slip.”

David identifies the Destroyer as Satan.

Satan is the angel of the bottomless pit in the Revelation, he is the Destroyer.


Kings of Jerusalem From Zedekiah to Solomon

We are not given the exact periods of the reign of each king in years, months and days. Therefore I have started the first year of each king at the last year of his predecessor and this may well have been the way the Israelites actually recorded their reigns.

Zedekiah reigned 11 years from c.596-586 BC
Jehoiachin reigned 3 months from c.597-596 BC
Jehoiakim reigned 11 years from c.607-597 BC
Jehoahaz reigned 3 months from c.607-607 BC
Josiah reigned 31 years from c.638-607 BC
Manaseh reigned 35 years from c.673-638 BC
Hezekiah reigned 29 years from c.702-673 BC
Ahaz reigned 16 years from c.717-702 BC
Jotham reigned 16 years from c.732-717 BC
Uzziah reigned 52 years from c.783-732 BC
Amaziah reigned 29 years from c.811-783 BC
Joash reigned 40 years from c.850-811 BC
Ahaliah reigned 6 years from c.855-850 BC
Ahaziah reigned 1 year from c.856-855 BC
Jehoram reigned 8 years from c.863-856 BC
Jehosaphat reigned 25 years from c.887-863 BC
Asa reigned 41 years from c.927-887 BC
Ahijah reigned 3 years from c.929-927 BC
Rehoboam reigned 17 years from c.945-929 BC
Solomon reigned 40 years from c.984-945 BC

The first year of Solomon was c.984 BC.

In 1 Kings 6:1 we read that from the Exodus to the fourth year of Solomon was 480 years however in the margin we read that it may have been   440 years.

Solomon's fourth year would have been c.981 BC according to the calculations above.

981 + 440 = 1421 BC

Therefore the Exodus from Egypt was c.1421 BC.

However recently I have calculated the Exodus to be 1353 AD the last year ascribed to Pharaoh Amenhotep III (see page Pharaohs of the Exodus ). So either the years allocated to the kings of Judah or the accepted years for the Pharaohs of Egypt are wrong. If the Exodus was c.1353 BC then we have the following calculation to get the start of Creation.

1353 + 2666 years = 4019 BC

Or 4059 BC for the longer time period.

Today the generally accepted date for the creation week is that given by James Ussher of 4004 BC, but there have been many who have attempted to calculate the time periods in the past few hundred years Isaac Newton being one of them.1

According to my calculations:

Noah's flood was c.2415 BC.
Joshua attacked Jericho c.1313 BC.
King David reigned from c.1023 – 984 BC.

It is generally accepted that Israel became a nation somewhere between 1400 BC and 1000 BC. It is interesting though that most athiestic theologians and archaeologists don't recognise that Israel was a great nation in the days of David and Solomon in particular. However, the Israelite nation must have started somewhere and deposed the native inhabitants of the land in some way in order to inhabit as many cities as they eventually did throughout the Holy Land. It is undeniable that Israel had become a very rich and cultured city well before the time of the Romans but atheistic theologians and archaeologists can't account for where the Israelites came from in order to defame and ridicule the biblical account. The Assyrian records in particular point to Israel being a nation well before c.750 BC. Archaeologists do agree that there were Canaanite settlements in Israel going back millennia. What they don't realise is that the Israelites were very similar to the Canaanites in that throughout their biblical history they built and worshiped pagan idols and practiced pagan ceremonies. There were very few decades when this was not the case. This is why it would be very hard to distinguish between archaeological Canaanite and Israelite settlements throughout the ages. The only difference between the two is the presence of pork on the Canaanite menu.


Verification of this Chronology

To verify that my chronology is accurate I have examined the dates and compared them to known Egyptian and Assyrian chronologies.

In 1Kings 12:40 we read that Jeroboam fled from Solomon and went to Shishak, king of Egypt. At that time Solomon was old and at the end of his reign, 1Kings 11:4. Solomon's last year as king was c.945 BC. From the Egyptian chronology, Shoshenq 1 reigned from 943 – 922 BC.2 He also came up against Rehoboam, Solomon's son, who reigned from c.945 – 929 BC. Therefore the dates for the reign of Solomon and his son Rehoboam match perfectly with the reign of Shoshenq 1.

In 1Kings 11:14-20 we read that Hadad, who went to Egypt as a child, was an adversary against Solomon. This Hadad found favor in the sight of Pharaoh and he married the sister of Queen Tahpenes. Now the Pharaoh's of Egypt at that time were based at Tanis in lower Egypt. The pharaoh before Shoshenq 1 was Psusennes.3 Many of the Pharaoh's surnames of that dynasty ended in 'ennes and as Hadad married the sister of Queen Tahpenes I believe this also is evidence of biblical accuracy.

The Kurkh Monoliths, now on display in the British museum, erected by Shalmeneser 111 (859-824 BC) mentions eleven kings who made an alliance and fought against Shalmaneser at the battle of Qarqar, king Ahab of Israel is mentioned.4

In 2Kings 15:29 we read that in the days of Pekah, king of Israel, Tiglath Pileser, king of Assyria, came and took cities and captives. Tiglath Pileser reigned from 745 – 727 BC.5 In 2Kings 16:1 we read that the 1st year of Ahaz was the 17th year of Pekah. The first year of Pekah would have been c.730 BC. Which matches perfectly with the end of the reign of Tiglath Pileser.

In 2Kings 17:1-6 we read that in the 12th year of Ahaz, Hoshea became king of Israel in Samaria. The 12th year of king Ahaz was c.706 BC. Shalmaneser, king of Assyria, came up against him. Shalmaneser at that time was co-regent with Sargon 11, from 722 – 709 BC.6 By 706 BC. Shalmaneser was no longer co-regent,7 But he may well have been still seen as being a king in the eyes of the Israelites.

In 2Kings 18:13 we read that in the 14th year of king Hezekiah, Sennacherib king of Assyria came up against all the fortified cities of Judea and took them. The 14th year of king Hezekiah was c.685 BC. Sennacherib was a king of Assyria and he reigned from 704 – 681 BC.8 The Taylor Prism held by the British Museum describes Sennacheribs seige of Jerusalem in 701 BC during the reign of king Hezekiah.9 The date 701 BC cannot possibly be the 14th year of Hezekiah so there could be something wrong with the Assyrian dating of this event or the dating in the Bible. Sennacherib ruled 25 years from 705 BC.10 Sargon 11 mentioned in Isaiah 20:1 was initially thought to be a mistake and historians criticized the scriptures for mentioning him. Sargon 11’s palace was found by Emile Botta the French consul to Mosul.11

In 2Chronicles 35:20-24 and 36:1-4 we read that Pharaoh Necho came up to fight against Carchemish at the end of Josiah's reign and that he killed Josiah. Josiah's last year as king was c.607 BC. Pharaoh Necho made Jehoahaz , Josiah's successor, pay a tribute. Three months into his reign Pharaoh Necho carried Jehoahaz off to Egypt as captive and made Jehoahaz's brother, Jehoiakim, king of Jerusalem. Pharaoh Necho reigned from 610 – 595 BC.12 Once again matching perfectly with the reigns of Josiah and Jehoahaz.

Nebuchadnezzar's 1st year as king of Babylon was 605 BC.13 In 605 BC, the 3rd year of Jehoiakim, Nebuchadnezzar besieged Jerusalem and took young men captive, including Daniel. He also took articles from the temple. In 2Chronicles 36:6-7 we read that Nebuchadnezzar came up against Jehoiakim and carried him off to Babylon. Jehoiakim's last year was c.597 BC. In Nebuchadnezzar's 19th year, 586 BC, he destroyed Solomon's temple and killed Zedekiah in his 11th year as king. Zedekiah was the last king of Jerusalem.

That is far as I can go with the kings of Jerusalem. Other Pharaoh's are mentioned but names have not been given. The identity of these Pharaoh's can be obtained by cross referencing dates given in the Bible with the Egyptian chronology presuming that the Egyptian chronology is correct.


Abraham and the Great Pyramid

Abraham was born c.1713 BC. In Genesis 12:4 we read that Abraham was seventy-five years of age when he left Ur of the Chaldeas, this would have been c.1638 BC. Some theologians have suggested that Abraham brought arithmetic and astrology to Egypt, and this is why the Great pyramid conforms to the 2 Π R formula. According to the Egyptian chronology the Great pyramid was built by Khufu (Cheops) and he reigned from 2598 – 2566 BC,14 which is nine hundred years before Abraham went to Egypt. The Egyptian chronology may be out a few years but not nine hundred years as suggested. Herodotus said that arithmetic and astrology came from the Chaldea, so it could have been anyone from this region, not necessarily Abraham.


Jacob, Joseph, and Senusret 11

I'll start with Jacob and his son Joseph. In Exodus 12:40 we read that from the time that Jacob and his family came to Egypt, until the Exodus from Egypt, there was four hundred and thirty years. Previously I have calculated the Exodus to have been in c.1353 BC.

1353 + 430 = 1783 BC

This is the year Jacob and his family came to live with Joseph. In the Egyptian chronology the Pharaoh who was ruling at this time was Semenkare Nebnuni or Sehetepibre Sewesekhtawy.15 Khnumhotep III was a provincial governor in the reign of Sunusret 11. His tomb is one of the latest of the Middle Kingdom tombs built at Beni-Hassan. On the north wall there is a scene depicting a caravan of trading Asiatics coming to Egypt from Syro-Palestine. The caravan consists of thirty-seven people carrying eye paint, metal working materials, spears and axes, musical instruments, carpets and other household items. It must have been a significant event in the life of Khnumhotep to be have been put on the wall of his tomb. The Beni-Hassan tomb has been dated to 1890 BC, by radio carbon dating, which little earlier than my date for Jacob and his family coming to Egypt in c.1821 BC.

Wikipedia suggests that Senusret 11 may have been Joseph's Pharaoh because of his achievements. In this region there is a canal named Joseph's canal which has been attributed to the twelfth dynasty and this fits perfectly with the time of Joseph. Senusret 11 is recorded as undertaking massive irrigation works in the region.16


Joshua and Hazor

After Moses brought the Israelites out of Egypt they travelled through the wilderness for forty years. Moses then died on Mount Nebo before entering the promised land. From my calculations the Exodus began c.1391 BC.

1391 – 40 = 1351 BC

Therefore, Joshua invaded Jericho c.1351 BC, and then proceeded to destroy all the Canaanite cities in the land. In Joshua 11:1-13 we read that Joshua fought against the king of Hazor and struck its king with the sword utterly destroying the armies of the kings of the north and the city of Hazor, which he burned with fire. Archaeologists have found the tel of Hazor, a fortified city in the north of Israel. The digs have uncovered the ruins of the kings palace. There is evidence of an intense fire which destroyed the palace, even melting the bricks.17 The archaeological evidence of pottery finds have dated the site to the Late Bronze Age, between the fourteenth and thirteenth centuries BC.18 This evidence supports my date of c.1351 BC, bearing in mind that the pottery dates are plus or minus one hundred years. The archaeologists have discovered some clay tablets as well, but nothing significant is written on them. They hope to uncover the archives room and to find evidence indicating which Pharaoh was ruling Egypt in Hazor's last days. Before the city had been found historians scoffed at the idea of Joshua and Hazor.

If Joshua entered the Promised Land and crossed the Jordan c.1313 BC, then it would have been during the reign of Aye or Horemheb.19

In the book of judges there is a story about Jephthah who fought against the Ammonites. Most scholars place Jephthah in the eleventh century BC, some in the late twelfth century BC. The king of the Ammonites requested that Israel give back the lands from the Arnon as far as the Jabbok, and to the Jordan, (Judges 11:13). Jephthah responds by telling the king that they had not taken the land from them but from the king of Sihon after defeating him, (Judges 13:15-21).

Judges 13:26 "While Israel dwelt in Heshbon and its villages, in Aroer and its villages, and in all the cities along the banks of the Arnon, for three hundred years, why did you not recover them within that time?"

If Jephthah lived in the late twelfth century or early eleventh century BC, then the Israelites must have been in Trans Jordan in the late fifteenth century or early fourteenth century BC. This time frame matches perfectly with my calculations that Joshua crossed the Jordan and entered Jericho c.1313 BC. Archaeologists believe that there is very little evidence of any occupation of Jericho from between fifteen hundred and twelve hundred BC. If the Israelites destroyed Jericho at the start of the fourteenth century BC as you would expect there wouldn't be any evidence of any occupation for a number of years.


References
1. Ussher Cronology, Wikipedia, 2016
2. Shoshenq 1, Wikipedia, 2016
3. Psusennes II, Wikipedia, 2016
4. Kurkh Monoliths, Wikipedia, 2016
5. Tiglath Pileser, Wikipedia, 2016
6. Sargon II, Wikipedia, 2016
7. Ibid
8. Sennacherib, Wikipedia, 2016
9. Sennacherib’s Hexagonal Prism, Bible History Online, http://www.bible-history.com/empires/prism.html, 2016
10. Amazing Discoveries in Bible Lands, by David Currie.
11. Amazing Discoveries in Bible Lands, by David Currie, Pages 8 and 9.
12. Necho II, Wikipedia, 2016
13. Nebuchadnezzar II, Wikipedia, 2016
14. Khufu, Wikipedia, 2016
15. Semenkare Nebnuni, Sehetepibre Sewesekhtawy, List of Pharaoh’s, Wikipedia, 2016
16. Senusret 11, Wikipedia, 2016
17. Tel Hazor, Wikipedia, 2016
18. Ibid
19. Aye or Horemheb, List of Pharaohs, Wikipedia, 2016